ITP儿童的特点(ISTP/INTP)

  1. ITP儿童 ( 内倾 思考 感知)


    ITP儿童 特点

    1. 注重逻辑和客观
    2. 喜欢冒险,并且享受这种身体上的冒险(physical risks)。(译注,这里区别于精神的冒险)
    3. 他们独特和重视自己的独特性。
    4. 他们高度的独立,不喜欢做被告知去做什么。
    5. 他们不乐意控制或领导别人,也不会告诉别人该做什么。
    6. 他们安静、认真。
    7. 为人诚实并且在表达方面直接、明确。
    8. 他们善于观察。
    9. 对新事物有极大兴趣与好奇,并且能迅速学会他们。
    10. 待人不会太过温柔也不会将自己的感情公开。
    11. 他们喜欢阅读。
    12. 他们倾向于独自一人,也可能有一个或两个朋友,但不会是大量的熟人。
    13. 他们非常待人随和容易相处。
    14. 通常喜欢独自学习而不是团队学习。
    15. 他们希望在他们感兴趣的事情变现出色,他们更喜欢以自己的标准做事,而不是为了给别人留下良好印象。
    16. 他们很容易感到厌倦。
    17. 他们注重精确的交流,对于夸张与模糊的陈词感到恼怒。

    潜在优势

    1. 对于感兴趣的事,他们展现出强大的能力并且最终能完全掌握这些事。
    2. 他们灵活,能够很好地适应新环境。
    3. 他们生活中漫不经心,轻松自在的,因而很容易相处。
    4. 强烈的公正意识。
    5. 他们是善于观察,并能迅速将新数据融入自己的思想。
    6. 他们通常很聪明,能够在高等教育中表现出色。
    7. 他们诚实坦率。
    8. 他们做事认真,有目的,不会浮于事物表面。
    9. 他们乐于接受天性,尽管他们对人们兴趣不大。

    潜在劣势

    1. 他们缺少时间概念,缺少时间安排可能使他们经常迟到或错过最后期限。
    2. 他们将坚决抵制被要求做什么,这可能会使他们触犯纪律。
    3. 他们不喜欢作决定,宁愿让事情有所保留,直至最后一刻。
    4. 他们将抵制做任何他们不喜欢做的事。
    5. 他们往往不知道别人的感受,也不知道自己的行为将如何影响他人。
    6. 他们能很好的隐藏自己的感情,不被他人甚至自己发现。(译注,这里的“不被自己发现”应该是无意识对自我的感情压抑)
    7. 当陷入混乱或者需要对紧急事件做出应激反应时,他们可能以一种极其夸张与不恰当的情绪来对状况做出回应。
    8. 他们非常客观以及独立,以至于在与人们建立亲密关系上有困难。
    9. 由于他们的冒险天性,他们可能卷入一些麻烦。

    ITP 学习风格

    ITP儿童在处理事物时将思考作为主要工具。因此,他们是极度理性并且有逻辑性。他们可能有能力吸收和处理学校的课程提供的任何信息。然而,如果他们对于某个特定主题不感兴趣,他们不会花任何努力来学习。他们往往对需要使用大量感情的学科不感兴趣(译注,需要大量感情的学科指需要大量动用人格中f的学科。)如外语和艺术。他们对那些充满逻辑性并且能够不断给他们思想提出新挑战的学科更感兴趣,如数学等,同时这些学科也将完全被ITP掌握。他们会重视自己的能力,并且使他们满足自己设立的杰出标准。ITP儿童需要详细且明确的反馈。笼统的表扬或批评(如“做的好!”)对ITP来说毫无意义。他们需要知道他们的出色表现具体体现在哪里,或者他们哪里表现的不好,以及为什么表现的不好。所以,为ITP儿童做出评价时请尽可能的明确与详细。
    儿童ITP强烈需要事物合乎逻辑并且保持连贯。因此,他们需要被清楚阐明的能被固守的规则和目标。规则必须对每一个人都强制实行以和合ITP的公平竞争意识。
    ITP对学习很感兴趣,但他们很容易变得厌倦。他们需要不断被提出新的挑战,以保持他们的兴趣和发展。
    ITP儿童不喜欢明确地被告知该做什么。他们将会在被分配的任务中表现出色。因为那些任务通常有明确的目标,需要被遵守的规则并且允许他们用自己的手段策略来达到目标。
    ITP儿童独自工作更为出色。他们可能对团队合作的工作方式感到困难,并拒绝加入这类课题研究。

    ITP的特殊需要

    我们的社会将情感倾向(而不是思考)与女性特征联系在一起。ITP女孩(倾向思考)可能被视为没有女性气质。他们可能会回避“少女的”服装,并且显得拘谨和有距离感,而不是友好和神入。 ITP的女孩不应该因这些特点而产生罪恶罪。当他们十多岁时,ITP女孩将更加关注自己被社会所接受的程度,并可能会在那时寻求如何更有效地使用他们的感情功能。
    ITP儿童年幼的时候没有接近情感功能的方法,但这并不意味着他们没有感情,这只是意味着他们不以主观数据为基础来做决定。他们的决定是完全基于逻辑和客观事实的。这意味着ITP在某些特定的情况下用个人感情来测定客观真理的价值.生活中,这使得ITP儿童有时会做一些或说一些伤害别人的感情的事。ITP儿童不会自然地或意识到别人的感情,在成长过程中,他们将需要发展这种关注和技能。家长和其他照顾者可以把自己作为例子帮助ITP儿童学习如何建立同人们的联系。ITP儿童善于观察,并会对成人的行为进行挑选然后学习。他们可以通过观察成人如何做这些来学会如何交朋友以及如何做朋友。
    ITP儿童是典型的直述陈词。这有时会使他们说的事情在特定情况下看起来无情或者不合适。成年人应该认识到,儿童很少故意这么做,尽管他们可能会说一些伤害的话。他们只是忠于自己的坦诚和做真实的自我。他们不应该因此感到罪恶。如果他们直率正引发一个真正的问题,你可以和他们交谈一下,提供一些真实的例子并且给他们解释分析为什么他们的行为正在引发问题。不过,他们很可能会继续坦率,因为这样就阻止他们追求真实的天性。
    ITP儿童需要事情是公平的,以使他们感到舒适。他们希望规则对每个人始终都强制实行。他们有很强的公平竞争意识,并会公平对待别人。他们还期望得到公平的对待,如果没有,他们可能会变得很心烦。

    缺失”的字母:

    成年人的人格类型包含4个字母,然而对于7至12岁的孩子,我们使用3个字母。那么,那个缺失的字母呢?它通常得等孩子13岁后才能被确定是什么。 ITP儿童将成长为ISTP“手艺者”或INTP“思想者”。在这个发展阶段,他们将会选择直觉还是感觉来辅助他们的思考倾向还不明显。你将会看到,孩子反复练习“直觉”和“感觉”,直至在他们安顿于自己的人格倾向。对某些孩子,识别他们“缺失”的字母是可能的;但是对很多孩子,我们还得等上若干年才能确定他们。



    Portrait of an ITP Child (Introverted Thinking Perceiving)


    ITP Traits

    1. Logical and objective
    2. Tend to be adventurous, and enjoy taking physical risks
    3. They're original and value their uniqueness
    4. They're highly independent, and don't like being told what to do
    5. They have no interest in controlling or leading others, or telling them what to do
    6. Quiet and serious
    7. Honest and direct
    8. They're very observant
    9. Curious and interested in learning new things
    10. Quick to learn new things
    11. Not overly affectionate or demonstrative of their love
    12. They enjoy books
    13. They have a tendency to be loners, and may have one or two friends, rather than lots of acquaintances
    14. They're very easy-going and undemanding
    15. Often prefer to work alone rather than in groups
    16. They want to be good at things that interest them, and they apply their own standards rather than trying to impress anyone else
    17. They get bored easily
    18. They value precision in communication, and are irritated by exaggerations and half-truths

    Potential Strengths

    1. When interested in something, they exhibit extreme competence and will master it completely
    2. They're flexible and can adapt well to new situations
    3. Laid-back and easy-going, they're usually easy to get along with
    4. Strong sense of fairness
    5. They're highly observant, and quickly incorporate new data into their thinking
    6. They're usually quite intelligent, and able to do well in higher education
    7. They're quite honest and truthful
    8. They take things seriously, and are seldom frivolous or flighty
    9. They have open and accepting natures, although they're not always interested in people

    Potential Weaknesses

    1. They don't have a good sense of time or schedules, and may frequently run late or miss deadlines
    2. They will strongly resist being told what to do, which may present a discipline problem
    3. They do not like to make decisions, and prefer to leave things open until the last possible moment
    4. They will resist doing anything that they don't feel like doing
    5. They're often unaware of how others are feeling, or how their own behavior affects others
    6. They keep their own feelings closely guarded and well-hidden from others, sometimes even from themselves
    7. When stressed out or upset, they may react with extreme emotions that are inappropriate or exaggerated for the situation
    8. Highly objective and detached, they may have difficulty forming close bonds with people
    9. With their risk-taking natures, they might get into some trouble

    ITP Learning Style

    ITP children have Thinking as their dominant personality function. Accordingly, they are extremely logical and rational. They probably have the capacity to absorb and process just about anything that a school curriculum would offer. However, if they're not interested in a particular topic, they will not put forth any effort into learning it. They don't tend to be as interested in classes that require use of the Feeling function, such as foreign languages and art. They are interested in work that requires the use of logic, and increasingly presents new challenges to their minds. These types of courses, such as many kinds of Math, will be completely mastered by the ITP, who highly values their competency and drives themselves to meet their own high standard of excellence.

    ITP children need specific feedback. General praise or criticism (such as "Good job!") mean nothing to an ITP. They need to know specifically what they did well, or specifically what they did not do well, and why. Be as specific and detailed as possible when giving feedback to an ITP child.

    ITP children have a strong need for things to be logical and consistent. Accordingly, they need to have any rules or goals spelled out clearly and consistently. Rules must be consistently enforced for everyone to suit the ITP's sense of fair play.

    ITP children are very interested in learning, but they get bored easily. They need to be presented with new challenges constantly in order to keep them interested and developing.

    ITP children do not like being told explicitly what to do. They will do best with assignments in which they are told what the desired goal is and any rules that must be followed, and left to their own devices to achieve the goal.

    ITP children work best alone. They may have problems with groups assignments, and may reject these kinds of projects by not participating much.

    ITP Special Needs

    Our society associates the Feeling preference (rather than Thinking) with female characteristics. ITP girls (who prefer Thinking) may be seen as unfeminine. They're likely to shun "girly" clothing and may appear distant and reserved, rather than friendly and empathetic. ITP girls should not be made to feel guilty for these traits. As they reach the teenage years, ITP girls will become more interested in social acceptance, and may seek advice at that time on how to use their Feeling function more effectively.

    ITP children do not have access to their Feeling function at a young age. That doesn't mean that they don't have feelings, it means that they don't make decisions based on subjective data. Their decisions are made entirely based on logic and objective fact. That means the the ITP values objective truth over a person's feelings in a given situation. In practice, this makes the ITP child sometimes do or say things that hurt other people's feelings. The ITP child is not naturally interested in or aware of other people's feelings, and they will need to develop this interest and skill as they grow. Parents and other caregivers can help ITP children learn how to form bonds by their own example. ITP children are very observant and will pick up on adult behaviors. They can learn how to make friends and be friends by observing how adults do this.

    ITP children are typically very direct in their speech. This will sometimes cause them to say things that seem unfeeling or inappropriate for a given situation. Adults should realize that the child rarely intends to be mean, although they may say something hurtful. They are just being their honest and direct selves. They should not be made to feel guilty about this behavior. If their directness is causing a real problem, you can speak with them about it, providing real examples and explaining rationally why their behavior is causing problems. However, they are likely to continue being direct, because it goes against their nature to tailor the truth.

    ITP kids need for things to be fair in order for them to be comfortable. They want rules to be enforced consistently for everyone, and will become upset over any perceived favoritism. They have a strong sense of fair play and will treat others fairly. They also expect to be treated fairly, and may become quite upset if they aren't.

    The "Missing" Letter

    Adult personality types contain four letters, while for kids aged 7-12, we use three letter types. What happened to the missing letter? It's there, we just can't usually determine what it is until after a person is 13 years old. ITP kids will grow up to be either ISTP "Mechanics" or INTP "Thinkers". At this stage in their development, it's not obvious whether they will choose Intuition or Sensing to complement their Thinking preference. You will see the child practicing both Intuition and Sensing as they settle down into their preferred function. In some children it's possible to distinguish their "missing" letter, but for many kids we just have to wait a few years to be sure.

    xinbo(ENTJ) 发表于 2015-11-21 修改回复喜欢(10)
    • 心理成长

      ITP儿童 ( 内倾 思考 感知)




      ITP儿童 特点


      1. 注重逻辑和客观

      2. 喜欢冒险,并且享受这种身体上的冒险(physical risks)。(译注,这里区别于精神的冒险)

      3. 他们独特和重视自己的独特性。

      4. 他们高度的独立,不喜欢做被告知去做什么。

      5. 他们不乐意控制或领导别人,也不会告诉别人该做什么。

      6. 他们安静、认真。

      7. 为人诚实并且在表达方面直接、明确。

      8. 他们善于观察。

      9. 对新事物有极大兴趣与好奇,并且能迅速学会他们。

      10. 待人不会太过温柔也不会将自己的感情公开。

      11. 他们喜欢阅读。

      12. 他们倾向于独自一人,也可能有一个或两个朋友,但不会是大量的熟人。

      13. 他们非常待人随和容易相处。

      14. 通常喜欢独自学习而不是团队学习。

      15. 他们希望在他们感兴趣的事情变现出色,他们更喜欢以自己的标准做事,而不是为了给别人留下良好印象。

      16. 他们很容易感到厌倦。

      17. 他们注重精确的交流,对于夸张与模糊的陈词感到恼怒。



      潜在优势


      1. 对于感兴趣的事,他们展现出强大的能力并且最终能完全掌握这些事。

      2. 他们灵活,能够很好地适应新环境。

      3. 他们生活中漫不经心,轻松自在的,因而很容易相处。

      4. 强烈的公正意识。

      5. 他们是善于观察,并能迅速将新数据融入自己的思想。

      6. 他们通常很聪明,能够在高等教育中表现出色。

      7. 他们诚实坦率。

      8. 他们做事认真,有目的,不会浮于事物表面。

      9. 他们乐于接受天性,尽管他们对人们兴趣不大。



      潜在劣势


      1. 他们缺少时间概念,缺少时间安排可能使他们经常迟到或错过最后期限。

      2. 他们将坚决抵制被要求做什么,这可能会使他们触犯纪律。

      3. 他们不喜欢作决定,宁愿让事情有所保留,直至最后一刻。

      4. 他们将抵制做任何他们不喜欢做的事。

      5. 他们往往不知道别人的感受,也不知道自己的行为将如何影响他人。

      6. 他们能很好的隐藏自己的感情,不被他人甚至自己发现。(译注,这里的“不被自己发现”应该是无意识对自我的感情压抑)

      7. 当陷入混乱或者需要对紧急事件做出应激反应时,他们可能以一种极其夸张与不恰当的情绪来对状况做出回应。

      8. 他们非常客观以及独立,以至于在与人们建立亲密关系上有困难。

      9. 由于他们的冒险天性,他们可能卷入一些麻烦。



      ITP 学习风格


      ITP儿童在处理事物时将思考作为主要工具。因此,他们是极度理性并且有逻辑性。他们可能有能力吸收和处理学校的课程提供的任何信息。然而,如果他们对于某个特定主题不感兴趣,他们不会花任何努力来学习。他们往往对需要使用大量感情的学科不感兴趣(译注,需要大量感情的学科指需要大量动用人格中f的学科。)如外语和艺术。他们对那些充满逻辑性并且能够不断给他们思想提出新挑战的学科更感兴趣,如数学等,同时这些学科也将完全被ITP掌握。他们会重视自己的能力,并且使他们满足自己设立的杰出标准。ITP儿童需要详细且明确的反馈。笼统的表扬或批评(如“做的好!”)对ITP来说毫无意义。他们需要知道他们的出色表现具体体现在哪里,或者他们哪里表现的不好,以及为什么表现的不好。所以,为ITP儿童做出评价时请尽可能的明确与详细。

      儿童ITP强烈需要事物合乎逻辑并且保持连贯。因此,他们需要被清楚阐明的能被固守的规则和目标。规则必须对每一个人都强制实行以和合ITP的公平竞争意识。

      ITP对学习很感兴趣,但他们很容易变得厌倦。他们需要不断被提出新的挑战,以保持他们的兴趣和发展。

      ITP儿童不喜欢明确地被告知该做什么。他们将会在被分配的任务中表现出色。因为那些任务通常有明确的目标,需要被遵守的规则并且允许他们用自己的手段策略来达到目标。

      ITP儿童独自工作更为出色。他们可能对团队合作的工作方式感到困难,并拒绝加入这类课题研究。



      ITP的特殊需要


      我们的社会将情感倾向(而不是思考)与女性特征联系在一起。ITP女孩(倾向思考)可能被视为没有女性气质。他们可能会回避“少女的”服装,并且显得拘谨和有距离感,而不是友好和神入。 ITP的女孩不应该因这些特点而产生罪恶罪。当他们十多岁时,ITP女孩将更加关注自己被社会所接受的程度,并可能会在那时寻求如何更有效地使用他们的感情功能。

      ITP儿童年幼的时候没有接近情感功能的方法,但这并不意味着他们没有感情,这只是意味着他们不以主观数据为基础来做决定。他们的决定是完全基于逻辑和客观事实的。这意味着ITP在某些特定的情况下用个人感情来测定客观真理的价值.生活中,这使得ITP儿童有时会做一些或说一些伤害别人的感情的事。ITP儿童不会自然地或意识到别人的感情,在成长过程中,他们将需要发展这种关注和技能。家长和其他照顾者可以把自己作为例子帮助ITP儿童学习如何建立同人们的联系。ITP儿童善于观察,并会对成人的行为进行挑选然后学习。他们可以通过观察成人如何做这些来学会如何交朋友以及如何做朋友。

      ITP儿童是典型的直述陈词。这有时会使他们说的事情在特定情况下看起来无情或者不合适。成年人应该认识到,儿童很少故意这么做,尽管他们可能会说一些伤害的话。他们只是忠于自己的坦诚和做真实的自我。他们不应该因此感到罪恶。如果他们直率正引发一个真正的问题,你可以和他们交谈一下,提供一些真实的例子并且给他们解释分析为什么他们的行为正在引发问题。不过,他们很可能会继续坦率,因为这样就阻止他们追求真实的天性。

      ITP儿童需要事情是公平的,以使他们感到舒适。他们希望规则对每个人始终都强制实行。他们有很强的公平竞争意识,并会公平对待别人。他们还期望得到公平的对待,如果没有,他们可能会变得很心烦。



      缺失”的字母:


      成年人的人格类型包含4个字母,然而对于7至12岁的孩子,我们使用3个字母。那么,那个缺失的字母呢?它通常得等孩子13岁后才能被确定是什么。 ITP儿童将成长为ISTP“手艺者”或INTP“思想者”。在这个发展阶段,他们将会选择直觉还是感觉来辅助他们的思考倾向还不明显。你将会看到,孩子反复练习“直觉”和“感觉”,直至在他们安顿于自己的人格倾向。对某些孩子,识别他们“缺失”的字母是可能的;但是对很多孩子,我们还得等上若干年才能确定他们。








      Portrait of an ITP Child (Introverted Thinking Perceiving)




      ITP Traits


      1. Logical and objective

      2. Tend to be adventurous, and enjoy taking physical risks

      3. They're original and value their uniqueness

      4. They're highly independent, and don't like being told what to do

      5. They have no interest in controlling or leading others, or telling them what to do

      6. Quiet and serious

      7. Honest and direct

      8. They're very observant

      9. Curious and interested in learning new things

      10. Quick to learn new things

      11. Not overly affectionate or demonstrative of their love

      12. They enjoy books

      13. They have a tendency to be loners, and may have one or two friends, rather than lots of acquaintances

      14. They're very easy-going and undemanding

      15. Often prefer to work alone rather than in groups

      16. They want to be good at things that interest them, and they apply their own standards rather than trying to impress anyone else

      17. They get bored easily

      18. They value precision in communication, and are irritated by exaggerations and half-truths



      Potential Strengths


      1. When interested in something, they exhibit extreme competence and will master it completely

      2. They're flexible and can adapt well to new situations

      3. Laid-back and easy-going, they're usually easy to get along with

      4. Strong sense of fairness

      5. They're highly observant, and quickly incorporate new data into their thinking

      6. They're usually quite intelligent, and able to do well in higher education

      7. They're quite honest and truthful

      8. They take things seriously, and are seldom frivolous or flighty

      9. They have open and accepting natures, although they're not always interested in people



      Potential Weaknesses


      1. They don't have a good sense of time or schedules, and may frequently run late or miss deadlines

      2. They will strongly resist being told what to do, which may present a discipline problem

      3. They do not like to make decisions, and prefer to leave things open until the last possible moment

      4. They will resist doing anything that they don't feel like doing

      5. They're often unaware of how others are feeling, or how their own behavior affects others

      6. They keep their own feelings closely guarded and well-hidden from others, sometimes even from themselves

      7. When stressed out or upset, they may react with extreme emotions that are inappropriate or exaggerated for the situation

      8. Highly objective and detached, they may have difficulty forming close bonds with people

      9. With their risk-taking natures, they might get into some trouble



      ITP Learning Style


      ITP children have Thinking as their dominant personality function. Accordingly, they are extremely logical and rational. They probably have the capacity to absorb and process just about anything that a school curriculum would offer. However, if they're not interested in a particular topic, they will not put forth any effort into learning it. They don't tend to be as interested in classes that require use of the Feeling function, such as foreign languages and art. They are interested in work that requires the use of logic, and increasingly presents new challenges to their minds. These types of courses, such as many kinds of Math, will be completely mastered by the ITP, who highly values their competency and drives themselves to meet their own high standard of excellence.



      ITP children need specific feedback. General praise or criticism (such as "Good job!") mean nothing to an ITP. They need to know specifically what they did well, or specifically what they did not do well, and why. Be as specific and detailed as possible when giving feedback to an ITP child.



      ITP children have a strong need for things to be logical and consistent. Accordingly, they need to have any rules or goals spelled out clearly and consistently. Rules must be consistently enforced for everyone to suit the ITP's sense of fair play.



      ITP children are very interested in learning, but they get bored easily. They need to be presented with new challenges constantly in order to keep them interested and developing.



      ITP children do not like being told explicitly what to do. They will do best with assignments in which they are told what the desired goal is and any rules that must be followed, and left to their own devices to achieve the goal.



      ITP children work best alone. They may have problems with groups assignments, and may reject these kinds of projects by not participating much.



      ITP Special Needs


      Our society associates the Feeling preference (rather than Thinking) with female characteristics. ITP girls (who prefer Thinking) may be seen as unfeminine. They're likely to shun "girly" clothing and may appear distant and reserved, rather than friendly and empathetic. ITP girls should not be made to feel guilty for these traits. As they reach the teenage years, ITP girls will become more interested in social acceptance, and may seek advice at that time on how to use their Feeling function more effectively.



      ITP children do not have access to their Feeling function at a young age. That doesn't mean that they don't have feelings, it means that they don't make decisions based on subjective data. Their decisions are made entirely based on logic and objective fact. That means the the ITP values objective truth over a person's feelings in a given situation. In practice, this makes the ITP child sometimes do or say things that hurt other people's feelings. The ITP child is not naturally interested in or aware of other people's feelings, and they will need to develop this interest and skill as they grow. Parents and other caregivers can help ITP children learn how to form bonds by their own example. ITP children are very observant and will pick up on adult behaviors. They can learn how to make friends and be friends by observing how adults do this.



      ITP children are typically very direct in their speech. This will sometimes cause them to say things that seem unfeeling or inappropriate for a given situation. Adults should realize that the child rarely intends to be mean, although they may say something hurtful. They are just being their honest and direct selves. They should not be made to feel guilty about this behavior. If their directness is causing a real problem, you can speak with them about it, providing real examples and explaining rationally why their behavior is causing problems. However, they are likely to continue being direct, because it goes against their nature to tailor the truth.



      ITP kids need for things to be fair in order for them to be comfortable. They want rules to be enforced consistently for everyone, and will become upset over any perceived favoritism. They have a strong sense of fair play and will treat others fairly. They also expect to be treated fairly, and may become quite upset if they aren't.



      The "Missing" Letter


      Adult personality types contain four letters, while for kids aged 7-12, we use three letter types. What happened to the missing letter? It's there, we just can't usually determine what it is until after a person is 13 years old. ITP kids will grow up to be either ISTP "Mechanics" or INTP "Thinkers". At this stage in their development, it's not obvious whether they will choose Intuition or Sensing to complement their Thinking preference. You will see the child practicing both Intuition and Sensing as they settle down into their preferred function. In some children it's possible to distinguish their "missing" letter, but for many kids we just have to wait a few years to be sure.


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